Archaeological investigations involved three different approaches to data collection. Surface inspection identified the locations of prehistoric structures. Shovel tests and controlled excavation confirmed the age of structures and buried features, based on tephra and collected charcoal samples. At Kultuk, four 30 centimeter diameter test pits (Test Pits 1, 2, 3, and 4) were excavated in 10 centimeter levels by shovel. All soil was screened using 0.5 centimeter mesh screen. After excavation, detailed stratigraphic notes were taken and soil samples were collected.
At Izvilisty one test pit (Test Pit 5) and one controlled 1 meter x 1 meter square unit (Unit 1) were excavated. At Test Pit 5 a similar technique was used (excavting 10 centimeter levels by shovel, screening all soil using 0.5 centimeter mesh, and detailed stratigraphic notes and soil samples taken. Based on positive findings in Test Pit 5, a 1 meter by 1 meter unit was excavated in the same depression. The unit was excavated by 5 centimeter levels, and all soil and tephra removed from the unit were screened using 0.5 centimeter mesh screen. In situ artifacts were recorded using a total station. Cultural features that were identified during excavation were documented in the floor of each level and in the profile. Soil and tephra samples were collected from the excavation profile.
At Ushki V and Izvilisty, ground penetrating radar (GPR ) data were collected using a 3 meter antenna. Transect marks were placed at major changes in topography, but never more than two meters apart. The team collected profiles along seven transects at Izvilisty, and 17 transects at Ushki V. GPR profiles were collected along the edge of excavated units whenever possible, in order to compare GPR and excavated profiles to improve interpretation.