Bibliographic sources for languages in 100-language and 200-language core samples for the World Atlas of Language Structures. Not all of these sources have been checked and some are probably of limited usefulness. For ease of posting on the web, diacritics have been removed from a number of non-English words. (Please excuse the fact that the formatting of this list of references is not consistent.) Some of these sources are not readily available and copies will made available to contributors; information regarding this will be provided to contributors soon. For some of these languages, experts are listed who contributors can contact with questions. Instructions regarding using experts are available at

This bibliography first lists the sources for languages in the 100-language sample, followed by a list of sources for languages in the 200-language sample that are not in the 100-language sample.

This list was last updated 5 June 2001.



Hewitt, B. G. 1979. Abkhaz. Lingua Descriptive Studies 2. Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Company.

Getsadze, Irina O. 1979. Ocherki po sintaksisu abkhazskogo iazyka : sinkhronno-diakhronnaia kharakteristika. Leningrad: Nauka.

Expert: George Hewitt:


Maring, Joel M. 1967. Grammar of Acoma Keresan. Unpublished Indiana University Ph.D. Dissertation.

Miller, Wick R. 1965. Acoma Grammar and Texts. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Bruce, Les. 1984. The Alamblak Language of Papua New Guinea (East Sepik). Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 81. Canberra: Australian National University.

Expert: Les Bruce:


Roberts, John R. 1987. Amele. London: Croom-Helm.

Expert: John Roberts:


Facundes, Sidney A grammar of Apurina that is not yet available but which should be completed and become available in early 2000. SUNY at Buffalo dissertation.

Expert: Sidi Facundes:

Arabic (Egyptian):

Gary, Judith Olmsted, and Saad Gamal-Eldin. 1982. Cairene Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Lingua Descriptive Studies 6. Amsterdam: North Holland.

Gamal-Eldin, Saad M. 1967. A syntactic study of Egyptian colloquial Arabic. The Hague: Mouton.

Hanna, H. Morcos. 1967. The phrase structure of Egyptian colloquial Arabic. The Hague: Mouton.

Mitchell, T. F. 1956. An Introduction to Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Tomiche, Nada. 1964. Le parler arabe du Caire. Paris: Mouton.


Drabbe, Peter. 1959. Dictionary of the Asmat Language. Syracuse, Indiana: Our Lady of the Lake Press.

Drabbe, Peter. 1963. Drie Asmat-dialecten. 's-Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff.

Voorhoeve, C. L. 1965. The Flamingo Bay Dialect of the Asmat Language. 'S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.


Gaden, Henri. 1909. Essai de grammaire de la langue baguirmienne : suivi de textes et de vocabulaires baguirmien-francais et francais-baguirmien. Paris: E. Leroux.

Stevenson, R. C. 1969. Bagirmi Grammar. Linguistic Monograph Series No. 3. Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit, University of Khartoum.


Smith, Richard D. 1973. Southern Barasano Grammar. Language Data Microfiche AM3. Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Jones, Wendell, and Paula Jones. 1991. Barasano Syntax. Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.


Allieres, Jacques. 1979. Manuel Pratique de Basque. Paris: Editions Picard.

Arotcarena, (Abbe). 1976. Grammaire Basque. Bayonne: Librairie Jakin.

King, Alan R. 1994. The Basque Language: A Practical Introduction. Reno: University of Nevada Press.

Lafitte, Pierre. 1962. Grammaire Basque. Editions des "amis du musee basque" et "Ikas" Bayonne:

Lasa, Jose Estornes. 1961. Metodo Elemental De Vasco. Zarauz: Editorial Itxaropewa.

Saltarelli, Mario. 1988. Basque. Croom Helm Descriptive Grammars London: Croom Helm.

Van Eys, W.J. 1883. Outlines of Basque Grammar. London: Trubner & Co.

Rebuschi, Georges. 1984. Structure de L'enonce en Basque. Paris: SELAF.

Expert: Jose Hualde:


Conrad, Robert J., and Kepas Wogiga. 1991. An Outline of Bukiyip Grammar. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 113. Canberra: The Australian National University.


Cornyn, William S., and D. Haigh Roop. 1968. Beginning Burmese. Yale University Press.

Okell, John. 1969. A Reference Grammar of Colloquial Burmese, Part 1. London: Oxford University Press.

Stewart, J. A. 1955. Manual of Colloquial Burmese. London: Luzac and Company.


Lorimer, D. L. R. 1935. The Burushaski Language, Vol. 1: Introduction and Grammar. Instituttet for Sammenlignende Kulturforskning, Serie B, Skrifter XXIX. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Berger, Hermann. 1974. Das Yasin-Burushaski (Werchikwar). Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz.

Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.


Popjes, Jack, and Jo Popjes. 1986. Canela-Kraho. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, ed., Handbook of Amazonian Languages 1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Topping, Donald M. 1973. Chamorro Reference Grammar. Honolulu: The University Press at Hawaii.

Topping, Donald M. 1980. Spoken Chamorro. Honolulu: The University Press at Hawaii.

Expert: Sandra Chung: schung@cats.UCSC.EDU

Chinese (Mandarin):

Li, Charles N., and Sandra A. Thompson. 1981. Mandarin Chinese: a Functional Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Bogoras, Waldemar. 1922. Chukchee. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Part 2, , Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40 , pp. 631-903. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Dunn, Michael. A Grammar of Chukchi. Australian National University Ph.D. Thesis.

Kampfe, Hans-Rainer, and Aleksandr P. Volodin. 1995. Abriss der tschuktschischen Grammatik auf der Basis der Schriftsprache. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Skorik, P. 1961-1977. Grammatika chukotskogo iazyka. Vols. 1 and 2. Leningrad: Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR.

Skorik, P. IA. 1983. Uchebnoe posobie po chukotskomu iazyku : fonetika, morfologiia, sintaksis. Magadan: Magadanskoe knizhnoe izd-vo.

Volodin, Aleksander. 1998. Chukchee. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Michael Dunn:

Cree (Plains):

Wolfart, H. Christoph. 1973. Plains Cree: A Grammatical Study. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, New Series, Vol. 63, Part 5. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Wolfart, H. Christoph, and Janet Carroll. 1981. Meet Cree. Second Edition. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press.

Wolfart, H. C. 1996. Sketch of Cree, an Algonquian Language. In Ives Goddard, ed., Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 17: Languages, pp. 390 - 439. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Dahlstrom, Amy. 1991. Plains Cree Morphosyntax. New York: Garland Publishing.

Expert: Rose-Marie Dechaine:


Murane, Elizabeth. 1974. Daga Grammar: From Morpheme to Discourse. Norman: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Dani (Lower Grand Valley):

Bromley, H. Myron. 1981. A Grammar of Lower Grand Valley Dani. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 63. The Australian National University.



Churchward, C. Maxwell. 1973. A New Fijian Grammar. Suva, Fiji: Government Press.

Dixon, Robert M. W. 1988. A Grammar of Boumaa Fijian. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Milner, G. B. 1972. Fijian Grammar. Suva, Fiji: Government Press.

Schutz, Albert J. 1985. The Fijian Language. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.


Neuvonen, Eero K. 1935. Elements de Finnois. Suamalaisen Kirjallisunden Seura Helsinki: Societe de Litterature Finnoise.

Whitney, Arthur H. 1973. Finnish. Teach Yourself Books. New York: David McKay Company Inc.

Sulkala, Helena, and Merja Karjalainen. 1992. Finnish. London: Routledge.

Fromm, Hans. 1982. Finnische Grammatik. Heidelberg: C. Winter, Universitatsverlag.

Karlsson, Fred. 1999. Finnish: an essential grammar. London: Routledge. Translated by Andrew Chesterman.

Olli, John B. 1958. Fundamentals of Finnish Grammar. New York: Northland Press.

Vaehaemaeki, Borje. 1998. Finnish. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Pirkko Suihkonen:


Byrne, Lionel S. R., Ernest L. Churchill, and Glanville Price. 1986. A Comprehensive French Grammar. Third Edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Harris, Martin. 1988. French. In Martin Harris and Nigel Vincent, ed., The Romance Languages, pp. 209-245. London: Croom Helm.

Judge, Anne, and F. G. Healey. 1985. A reference grammar of modern French. London: E. Arnold.

Expert: Susanne Michaelis:


Cherchi, Marcello. 1998. Georgian. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Hewitt, B. G. 1995. Georgian: A Structural Reference Grammar. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Vogt, Hans. 1971. Grammaire de la Langue Georgienne. Oslo: The Institute for Comparative Research in Human Culture.

Expert: George Hewitt:


Borgert, Udo H. G., and Charles A. Nyhan. 1975. A German Reference Grammar. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Hammond, Robin. 1981. A German Reference Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press. NO

Expert: Martin Haspelmath:


McGregor, William. 1990. A Functional Grammar of Gooniyandi. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. PL7101 G824 M34

Expert: William McGregor:


Innes, Gordon. 1966. An Introduction to Grebo. London: School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London.

Greek (Modern):

Joseph, Brian D., and Irene Philippaki-Warburton. 1987. Modern Greek. London: Croom Helm.

Mackridge, P. 1985. The Modern Greek Language. New York: Oxford University Press.

Holton, David, Peter Mackridge, and Irene Philippaki-Warburton. 1997. Greek: A Comprehensive Reference Grammar of the Modern Language. London: Routledge.

Expert: Brian Joseph:

Greenlandic (West):

Fortescue, M. 1984. West Greenlandic. Croom Helm Descriptive Grammars. Dover, New Hampshire: Croom Helm.

Sadock, Jerold M. 1998. West Greenlandic. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Schultz-Lorentzen. 1945. A Grammar of the West Greenland Language. Forlag, Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels.

Expert: Jeanette Sakel:


Gregores, Emma, and Jorge A. Suarez. 1967. A Description of Colloquial Guarani. The Hague: Mouton.


Howerdy, A. 1959. Concise Hausa Grammar. Second Edition. London: George Ronald.

Kraft, Charles H. 1963. A Study of Hausa Syntax, Vols. 1 and 2. Hartford, Conn.: Department of Linguistics, Hartford Seminary Foundation.

Kraft, Charles H., and Marguerite G. 1973. Introductory Hausa. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Kraft, C. H., and A. H. M. Kirke-Greene. 1973. Hausa. Hodder and Stoughton.

Migeod, Frederick W. H. 1914. A Grammar of the Hausa Language. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd.

Smirnova, M. A. 1982. The Hausa Language: A Descriptive Grammar. Languages of Asia and Africa 5. London: Routledge and Kegal Paul. (Original edition published 1960).

Newman, Paul. 2000. The Hausa Language: An Encyclopedic Reference Grammar. Yale University Press.

Wolff, Ekkehard H. 1993. Referenzgrammatik des Hausa: Zur Begleitung des Fremdsprachenunterrichts und zur Einfhrung in das Selbststudium. Hamburg: LIT.

Expert: Mahamane L. Abdoulaye:,

Hebrew (Modern):

Glinert, Lewis. 1989. The Grammar of Modern Hebrew. Cambridge University Press.

Expert: David Gil:


McGregor, R. S. 1977. Outline of Hindi Grammar. Second Edition. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Expert: Anvita Abbi:,


Derbyshire, Desmond. 1979. Hixkaryana. Lingua Descriptive Studies 1. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Derbyshire, Desmond. 1985. Hixkaryana and Linguistic Typology. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Expert: Desmond Derbyshire: (often away in the field)

Hmong Njua:

Harriehausen, Bettina. 1990. Hmong Njua. Tubingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag.

Lyman, Thomas Amis. 1979. Grammar of Mong Njua (Green Miao): A Descriptive Linguistic Study. Sattley, California: Blue Oak Press.


Seiler, Walter. 1985. Imonda, A Papuan Language. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 93 Canberra: Australian National University.


Danusugondo, Purwanto. 1975-1976. Bahasa Indonesian: Indonesian for Beginners, Volumes1 and 2. Sydney: Sydney University Press.

Macdonald, R. Ross. 1976. Indonesian Reference Grammar. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press.

Sarumpaet, J. P., and J. A. C. Mackie. 1966. Introduction to Bahasa Indonesia. Melbourne University Press.

Sneddon, James N. 1996. Indonesian Reference Grammar. St. Leonards, Australia: Allen and Unwin.

Sneddon, James N. 1996. Indonesian: A Comprehensive Grammar. New York: Routledge.

Expert: David Gil:


Craig, Collette. 1977. The Structure of Jacaltec. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Day, Christopher. 1973. The Jacaltec Language. Indiana University Publications, Language Science Monogrphs 12. Bloomington: Indiana University.


Hinds, John. 1986. Japanese. London: Routledge.

Kuno, Susumo. 1973. The Structure of the Japanese Language. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.

Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1990. The Languages of Japan. Cambridge Langauge Surveys. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Expert: Akiko Comrie: (Subj: for Akiko)


Sridhar, S. N. 1989. Kannada. London: Routledge.

Expert: S.N. Sridhar:


Bright, William. 1957. The Karok Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Evans, Nicholas D. 1995. A Grammar of Kayardild. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Nicholas Evans:


Franklin, Karl J. 1967. Kewa Sentence Structure. In Papers in New Guinea Linguistics No. 7, Pacific Linguistics, Series A, No. 13. Canberra: Australian National University.

Franklin, Karl James. 1971. A Grammar of Kewa, New Guinea. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 16 Canberra: Australian National University.

Franklin, Karl J., and Joice Franklin. 1978. A Kewa Dictionary, with Supplementary Grammatical and Anthropological Materials. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 53 Canberra: The Australian National University.


Beffa, Marie Lise. 1975. Elements de grammaire mongole. Paris: Dunod.

Binnick, Robert I. 1979. Modern Mongolian: A Transformational Syntax. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Hangin, J. G. 1968. Basic Course in Mongolian. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Kullman, Rita. 1996. Mongolian Grammar. Hong Kong: Jensco Ltd.

Poppe, Nicholas N. 1970. Mongolian Language Handbook Series, Volume 4. Washington: The Center for Applied Linguistics.

Street, John C. 1963. Khalkha Structure. Indiana University Publications, Uralic and Altaic Series 24. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Expert: Jan-Olof Svantesson:


Watkins, Laurel J. 1984. A Grammar of Kiowa. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.


Kimball, Geoffrey. 1991. Koasati Grammar. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press.


Chang, Suk-Jin. 1996. Korean. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Lee, Hansol H. B. 1989. Korean Grammar. Oxford University Press.

Ramstedt, G. J. 1968. A Korean Grammar. Memoirs of the Finno-Ugric Society 82. Oosterhout, The Netherlands: Anthropological Publications.

Sohn, Ho-Min. 1994. Korean. London: Routledge.

Sohn, Ho-Min. 1999. The Korean Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Expert: Ho-Min Sohn


Reh, Mechthild. 1985. Die Krongo-Sprache (Niino Mo-Di). Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

Expert: Mechthild Reh (


Boas, Franz. 1927. Additional notes on the Kutenai language. International Journal of American Linguistics 4:85-104.

Boas, Franz. 1927. Annotated version of Grammar of the Kutenai Language, by Pater Philippo Canestrelli. International Journal of American Linguistics 4:1-84.

Garvin, Paul L. 1948a. Kutenai I: phonemics. International Journal of American Linguistics 14:37-38.

Garvin, Paul L. 1948a. Kutenai II: morpheme variations. International Journal of American Linguistics 14:87-90.

Garvin, Paul. 1948c. Kutenai III: morpheme distributions (prefix, theme, suffix). International Journal of American Linguistics 14:171-187.

Matthew Dryer as expert:


Buechel, Eugene. 1939. A Grammar of Lakota. Rosebud, South Dakota: Rosebud Educational Society.

Boas, Franz, and Ella Deloria. 1941. Dakota Grammar. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences , Volume 23, 2nd Memoir. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Riggs, Stephen Return. 1893. Dakota Grammar, Texts, and Ethnography. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Rood, David S., and Allen R. Taylor. 1996. Sketch of Lakhota, a Siouian Language. In Ives Goddard, ed., Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 17: Languages, pp. 440 - 482. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Van Valin, Robert D. 1977. Aspects of Lakhota Syntax. University of California at Berkeley Ph.D. Dissertation.

Williamson, Janis Shirley. 1984. Studies in Lakhota Grammar. University of California at San Diego Ph.D. Dissertation.

Expert: Robert Van Valin:


Noonan, Michael. 1992. A Grammar of Lango. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Michael Noonan:


Terrill, Angela. A grammar of Lavukaleve will become available some time in the year 2000. Australian National University Ph.D. thesis.

Expert: Angela Terrill:


Haspelmath, Martin. 1993. A Grammar of Lezgian. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Gadzhiev, M. M. 1963. Sintaksis Lezginskogo Jazyka, Vol. 2. Makhachkala Daguchpedgiz: Gamzat Tsadas Institute of History, Language and Literature.

Expert: Martin Haspelmath:


Horton, A. E. 1949. A Grammar of Luvale. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.


Expert: Matthew Davidson:


Dez, Jacques. 1980. Structures de la Langue Malgache. Paris: Publications Orientalistes de France.

Dez, Jacques. 1990. Cheminements Linguistiques Malgaches. Paris: SELAF.

Domenichini-Ramiaramanana, Bakoly. 1977. Le Malgache: Essai de Description Sommaire. Paris: SELAF.

Expert: Charles Randriamasimanana:


Merlan, Francesca. 1982. Mangarayi. Lingua Descriptive Studies 4. Amsterdam: North-Holland.


Augusta, Fray Felix Jose de. 1903. Gramatica Araucana. Valdivia: Imprenta Central, J. Lampert.

Fernandez Garay, Ana V. 1982. Rogativas mapuches. Amerindia 7:109-144.

Salas, Adalberto. 1972. Modo, persona, y numero en el verbo mapuche. In Tercera Semana Indigenista, . Temuco.

Salas, Adalberto. 1984. Textos Orales en Mapuche o Araucano del Centro-Sur de Chile. Concepcion: Editorial de la Universidad de Concepcion. (interlinear texts).

Salas, Adalberto. 1992. El mapuche o Araucano : fonologia, gramatica y antologia de cuentos. Coleccion Lenguas y literaturas indigenas 3. Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE.

Smeets, C. 1989. A Mapuche Grammar. Leiden: Ineke Smeets. Rijksuniversiteit te Leiden Doctoral Thesis.


Gordon, Lynn. 1986. Maricopa Morphology and Syntax. University of California Publications in Linguistics 108. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Dench, Alan Charles. 1995. Martuthunira: A Language of the Pilbara Region of Western Australia. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 125.

Expert: Alan Dench:


Hunt, Rev. R. J. 1940. Mataco Grammar. Universidad Nacional de Tuccuran Publicacion No. 271 Instituto de Anthropologia: Tucuman.

Tovar, Antonio. 1981. Relatos y Dialogos de Los Matacos. Madrid: Instituto de Cooperacion Iberoamericana.

Urquiza, Viñas, and Mani Teresa. 1974. Lengua Mataca. Tomos 1 & 2. Buenos Aines: Centro de Estudios Linguisticos.

Expert: Kenneth Claesson,


Capell, A., and H. E. Hinch. 1970. Maung Grammar. The Hague: Mouton.


Dol, Philomena. 1999. A grammar of Maybrat: A language of the Bird's Head, Irian Jaya, Indonesia. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Leiden.

Expert: Philomena Dol:


Bhat, D. N. S., and M. S. Ningomba. 1997. Manipuri Grammar. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Chelliah, Shobhana Lakshmi. 1997. A grammar of Meithei. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Shobhana Chelliah:

Mixtec (Chalcatongo):

Macauley, Monica. 1996. A Grammar of Chalcatongo Mixtec. University of California Publications in Linguistics 127. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Expert: Monica Macauley:

Nama (Khoekhoe):

Hagman, Roy S. 1977. Nama Hottentot Grammar. Research Center for Language and Semiotic Studies. Bloomington: Indiana University.


Donaldson, Tamsin. 1980. Ngiyambaa: The Language of the Wangaaybuwan. Cambridge: University Press.

Expert: Tamsin Donaldson:


Lounsbury, Floyd. 1953. Oneida Verb Morphology. Yale University publications in anthropology, no. 48. New Haven: Dept. of Anthropology, Yale University.

Expert: Karin Michelson

Oromo (Harar):

Owens, Jonathan. 1985. A Grammar of Harar Oromo (Northeastern Ethiopia). Hamburg: Buske.

Expert: Jonathan Owens:

Otomi (Mezquital):

Hess, H. Harwood. 1968. The Syntactic Structure of Mezquital Otomi. The Hague: Mouton.


Egli, Hans. 1990. Paiwangrammatik. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz.

Ferrell, Raleigh. 1982. Paiwan dictionary. Pacific linguistics. Series C ; no. 73. Canberra: ANU.


Elwell-Sutton, L. P. 1941. Colloquial Persian. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Limited.

Elwell-Sutton, L. P. 1963. Elementary Persian Grammar. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lambton, Ann K.S. 1967. Persian Grammar with key. Cambridge: University Press.

Lazard, Gilbert. 1957. Grammaire of persan contemporain. Paris: C. Clincksieck.

Lazard, Gilbert. 1957/1992. Grammar of Contemporary Persian. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda. Translated from French by Shirley Lyons. Originally published in 1957.

Mahootian, Shahrzad 1997 . Persian. London: Routledge.

Majidi, Mohammad-Reza. 1986. Strukturelle Grammatik des Neupersischen (Farsi). Hamburg: H. Buske. (Only volume 1, on phonology, published?).

Rastorgueva, V. S. 1964. A Short Sketch of the Grammar of Persian. International Journal of American Linguistics, Vol. 30, No. 1, Part 2. Bloomington: Indiana University Research Center in Anthropology, Folklore, and Linguistics. Translated by Stephen P. Hill. Edited by Herbert H. Paper.


Everett, Daniel L. 1986. Piraha. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, ed., Handbook of Amazonian Languages 1, pp. 200-325. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Everett, Daniel L. 1991. A lingua piraha e a teoria da sintaxe: descricao, perspectivas e teoria. Campinas, Brazil: Editora de Unicamp.

web site at

Expert: Dan Everett:

Quechua (Imbabura):

Cole, Peter. 1982. Imbabura Quechua. Lingua Descriptive Studies 5. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Expert: Pieter Muysken:


Grinevald, Colette. Unpublished materials to be made available by the editors.

Expert: Colette Grinevald


Chapin, Paul G. 1978. Easter Island: a characteristic VSO language. In Winfred P. Lehmann, ed., Syntactic Typology. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Du Feu, Veronica. 1996. Rapanui. London: Routledge.

Englert, Sebastian. 1978. Idioma rapanui : gramatica y diccionario del antiguo idioma de la Isla de Pascua. Santiago: Universidad de Chile.

Fuentes, Jordi. 1960. Diccionario y gramatica de la lengua de la Isla de Pascua : pascuense-castellano, castellano-pascuense. Santiago, Chile: Editorial Andres Bello.


Wade, Terence L. B. 1992. A Comprehensive Russian Grammar. Oxford: Blackwell.

Expert: Bernard Comrie:


Samarin, William J. 1967. A Grammar of Sango. The Hague: Mouton.


Borgman, Donald M. 1990. Sanuma. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, ed., Handbook of Amazonian Languages 2, pp. 15-248. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Rice, Keren. 1989. A Grammar of Slave. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Keren Rice

Songhay (Koyraboro Senni):

Heath, Jeffrey. 1999. A Grammar of Koyraboro (Koroboro) Senni. Koln: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.

Prost, R. P. A. 1956. La Langue Sonay et ses Dialectes. Memoires de l'Institut Français d'Afrique Noire 47 Dakar.

Expert: Jeff Heath:

Spanish (Castilian):

Green, John N. 1988. Spanish. In Martin Harris and Nigel Vincent, ed., The Romance Languages, pp. 79-130.


Carlson, Robert. 1994. A Grammar of Supyire. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Ashton, E. O. 1947. Swahili Grammar. Second Edition. London: Longmans, Green & Co.


Schachter, Paul, and Fe T. Otanes. 1972. Tagalog Reference Grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Shkerban, Lina. 1998. Tagalog. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Carl Rubino:

Tamazight (Ayt Ndhir):

Penchoen, Thomas G. 1973. Tamazight of the Ayt Ndhir. Afroasiatic Dialects 1. Los Angeles: Undena Publishing.


Anthony, Edward M., Deborah P. French, and Udom Warotamasikkhadit. 1968. Foundations of Thai, Part 1. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Campbell, Stuart, and Chuan Shaweevongse. 1962. The fundamentals of the Thai language. Second Edition. New York: Paragon Book Gallery.

Noss, Richard B. 1964. Thai Reference Grammar. Washington: Foreign Service Institute, Dept. of State, United States Government.

Warotamasikkhadit, U. 1972. Thai Syntax. The Hague: Mouton.

Expert: Uri Tadmor,


Lee, Jennifer. 1987. Tiwi Today: A Study of Language Change in a Contact Situation. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 96. Canberra: ANU.

Osborne, C. R. 1974. The Tiwi Language. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.

Tukang Besi:

Donohue, Mark. 1999. A Grammar of Tukang Besi. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Kornfilt, Jaklin. 1997 . Turkish. London: Routledge

Lewis, G. L. 1967. Turkish Grammar. Oxford University Press.

Swift, Lloyd B. 1963. A Reference Grammar of Modern Turkish. Bloomington: Indiana University Publications.

Underhill, Robert. 1976. Turkish Grammar. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Expert: Jaklin Kornfilt:


Binh, Duong Thanh. 1971. A Tagmemic Comparison of the Structure of English and Vietnamese Sentences. The Hague: Mouton. (some libraries list this under Duong Thanh Binh, not as Binh, ...).

Chinh Van, Truong. 1970. Structure de la langue vietnamienne. Paris: Impr. Nationale.

Nguyen Dinh Hoa. 1974. Colloquial Vietnamese. Second Edition. London: Feffer and Simons Inc.

Nguyen, Dinh Hoa. 1997. Vietnamese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Huffman, Franklin, and Tran Trong Hai. 1980. Intermediate Spoken Vietnamese. Ithica: Cornell Southeast Asia Program.

Liem, Nguyen Dang. 1975. Case, Clauses and Sentences in Vietnamese. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 37.

Thompson, Laurence. 1965. A Vietnamese Grammar. Seattle: University of Washington Press.

Expert: Mark Alves:


de Goeje, C.H. 1930. The Inner Structure of the Warao Language of Guiana. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes de Paris 22:23-72.

Romero-Figueroa, Andres. 1997. A reference grammar of Warao. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Vaquero, P. Antonio. 1965. Idioma Warao: Morfologia, Sintaxis, Literotura. Caracas: Estudio Venezolanos Indiganis.


Everett, Daniel L., and Barbara Kern. 1997. Wari. London: Routledge.

Expert: Dan Everett:


Rood, David S. 1976. Wichita Grammar. New York: Garland Publishing.

Rood, David S. 1996. Sketch of Wichita, a Caddoan Language. In Ives Goddard, ed., Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 17: Languages, pp. 580 - 608. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Expert: David Rood:


Payne, Doris L. 1990. The Pragmatics of Word Order: Typological Dimensions of Verb Initial Languages. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Payne, Doris L., and Thomas E. Payne. 1990. Yagua. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, eds., Handbook of Amazonian Languages 2, pp. 249-474. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Doris Payne:, Tom Payne:


Dedrick, John M., and Eugene H. Casad. 1999. Sonora Yaqui Language Structures. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.

Johnson, Jean B. 1962. El idioma yaqui. Departamento de Investigaciones Antropologicas, Publicaciones 10. Mexico: Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia.

Kurath, William, and Edward H. Spicer. 1947. A brief introduction to Yaqui, a native language of Sonora. University of Arizona bulletin, v. 18, no. 1. Tucson.

Lindenfeld, Jacqueline. 1971. Yaqui Syntax. University of California publications in linguistics, v. 76. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Zavala Castro, Palemon. 1989. Apuntes sobre el dialecto yaqui. Hermosillo, Mexico: Gobierno del Estado de Sonora, Secretaria de Fomento Educativo y Cultura.


Ashiwaju. 1968. Lehrbuch der Yoruba-Sprache. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopadie.

Awobuluyi, A. Oladele. 1978. Essentials of Yoruba Grammar. Ibadan: Oxford University Press Nigeria.

Bamgbose, Ayo. 1966. A Grammar of Yoruba. Cambridge: The University Press.

Delano, Isaac O. 1965. A modern Yoruba grammar. London: T. Nelson.

Ogunbowale, P. O. 1970. The Essentials of the Yoruba Language. London: University of London Press.

Rowlands, E. C. 1969. Teach Yourself Yoruba. London: English Universities Press.

Ward, Ida Caroline. 1952. An introduction to the Yoruba language. Cambridge, U.K.: W. Heffer.

Expert: Ayo Bamgbose

Zoque (Copainala):

Harrison, Roy, Margaret Harrison, and Castulo Garcia H. 1981. Diccionario Zoque de Copainala. Mexico City: Summer Institute of Linguistics.


Canonici, Noverino N. 1995. Zulu grammatical structure. Durban: Department of Zulu Language and Literature, University of Natal.

Cope, Anthony T. 1982. A comprehensive course in the Zulu language. Durban: Department of Zulu Language and Literature, University of Natal.

Doke, Clement M. 1927. Textbook of Zulu grammar. Johannesburg: The University of the Witwatersrand Press.

Poulos, George. Forthcoming? Zulu. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Poulos, George, and Christian T. Msimang. 1998. A Linguistic Analysis of Zulu. Pretoria: Via Afrika.

Ziervogel, D., J. A. Louw, and P. C. Jaljaard. 1981. A Handbook of the Zulu Language. Pretoria: J. L. van Schaik.




Najlis, Elena. 1966. Lengua Abipona. Tomo 1. Buenos Aires: Centro de Estudios, Universidad de Buenos Aires.


Dettmer, H. A. 1989. Ainu-Grammatik. Teil I: Texte und Hinweise. Veroffentichungen des Ostasien-Instituts der Ruhr-Universitat Bochum 38. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Dettmer, H. A. 1997 Ainu-Grammatik. Teil II: Erlauterungen und Register. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Maher, John. 1998. Ainu. Munich: Lincom Europa. [This may not be available yet.]

Refsing, Kirsten. 1986. The Ainu Language. Arhus, Denmark: Arhus University Press.

Shibatani, Masayoshi. 1990. The Languages of Japan. Cambridge University Press


Pitman, Donald. 1980. Bosquejo de la Gramatica Araona. Notas Linguisticas, No. 9 Riberalta, Bolivia: Instituto Linguistico De Verano.

de Pitman, Mary. 1981. Diccionario Araona-Castellano. Riberalta, Bolivia: Instituto Linguistico de Verano.

Armenian (Eastern):

Minassian, Martiros. 1980. Grammaire d'Armenien Oriental. Delmar, N.Y.: Caravan Books.

Kozintseva, Natalia. 1999. Modern Eastern Armenian. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Jasmine Dum-Tragut

Awa Pit:

Curnow, Timothy J. 1997. A Grammar of Awa Pit (Cuaiquer): An Indigenous Language of South-western Colombia. Australian National University Ph.D. Thesis.

Obando Ordonez, P. 1992. Awa-Kwaiker: an outline grammar of a Colombian/Ecuadorian language. University of Texas at Austin Ph.D. dissertation.

Expert: Timothy Curnow:


Deza Galindo, Juan Francisco. 1992. Gramatica de la lengua aymara. Lima: Artex Editores.

Ebbing, Juan Enrique. 1965. Gramatica y Diccionario Aimara. La Paz: Don Bosco.

Gallego, Saturnino. 1994. K'isimira (Gramatica viva de la lengua Aymara, Vocabulario tematico aymara). 1 and 2. La Paz: Bruno/Hisbol.

Gomez Bacarreza, Donato. 1992. Morfologia y gramatica del idioma aymara. La Paz, Bolivia.

Hardman de Bautista, Martha. 1974. Outline of the Aymara, Phonological and Grammatical Structure. Gainesville: University of Florida.

Hardman de Bautista, Martha J., Juana Vasquez, and Juan de Dios Yapita. 1988. Aymara, compendio de estructura fonologica y gramatical. Gainesville: Aymara Foundation.

Waxler, P. 1967. Beginning Aymara (A Course for English Speakers). Seattle: Peace Corps Training Programs, University of Washington.


Bird, C., and M. Kante. 1976. An Kan Bamanakan Kalan: Intermediate Bambara. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Bird, C., J. Hutchinson, and M. Kante. 1977. An Kan Bamanakan Kalan: Beginning Bambara. Bloomington: Indiana University Linguistics Club.

Bird, Charles S. 1966. Aspects of Bambara Syntax. UC dissertation.

Expert: Valentin Vydrine, St. Petersburg (

Batak (Karo):

Woollams, Geoffrey. 1996. A Grammar of Karo Batak, Sumatra. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 130.

Expert: Geoff Woollams:


Reichle, Verena. 1981. Bawm Language and Lore. Bern: Peter Lang.


Almkvist, Herman. 1881. Die Bischari-Sprache, Vols. 1 and 2. Upsala: Druck der Akademischen Buchdruckerei.

Hudson, R. A. 1974. A structural sketch of Beja. In D. W. Arnott, ed., African Language Studies, pp. 111-142. London: School of Oriental and African Studies.

Reinisch, Leo. 1893. Die Bedauye-Sprache in Nordost-Afrika, Vol. 2. Vienna: F. Tempsky.

Expert: Dick Hudson


Andronov, Mikhail S. 1980. The Brahui Language. Moscow: Nauka.

Brays, Denys. 1909. The Brahui Language Part I: Introduction and Grammar. Calcutta: Superintendent Government Printing.

Elfenbein, Josef. 1992-1996. Brahui. In Ehsan Yarshater, ed., Encyclopedia Iranica, Vol. 4, pp. 433-443. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publications.

Rai, Jamiat. 1985. Notes on the Study of the Brahui Language. Quetta: Brahui Academy.

Expert: Josef Elfenbein (only snailmail): Prof. Josef Elfenbein, Am Waldgarten 8, D-61276 Weilrod, Germany


Constenla Umana, Adolfo, Enrique Margery Pena, Rito Morales Stuart, and Abelino Torres Marin. 1979. Bribri. Ciudad Universitaria Rodrigo Facio : Universidad de Costa Rica, Escuela de Filologia, Seccion de Linguistica.

Margery Pena, Enrique. 1982. Notas preliminares sobre la morfologia Bribri. In Diccionario Bribri-Espanol, Espanol-Bribri. San Jose: Editorial Universidad de Costa Rica.

Pittier de Fabrega, Henri. 1898. Die Sprache der Bribri-Indianer in Costa Rica. Vienna: Kaiserliche Akademie der Wissenschaften.


Seiler, Hansjakob. 1977. Cahuilla Grammar. Banning, Calif.: Malki Museum Press.

Seiler, Hansjakob. 1970. Cahuilla texts with an introduction. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Sauvel, Katherine Siva, and Pamela Munro. 1981. Chem'ivillu' (Let's Speak Cahuilla). Los Angeles: American Indian Studies Center, UCLA.


Ehrman, Madeline Elizabeth. 1970. Contemporary Cambodian: Grammatical Sketch. Washington, D. C.: Foreign Service Institute.

Gorgoniyev, Y A. 1966. The Khmer Language. Moscow: Nauka.

Jacob, Judith M. 1968. Introduction to Cambodian. London: Oxford University Press.

Expert: Chhany Sak-Humphry:


Hoff, B. J. 1968. The Carib Language: Phonology, Morphology, Texts and Word Index. The Hague: M. Nyhoff.


Key, Harold H. 1967. Morphology of Cayuvava. The Hague: Mouton.

Chinantec (Lealao):

Rupp, James E. 1989. Lealao Chinantec Syntax. Studies in Chinantec Languages 2 Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.


Charney, Jean Ormsbee. 1993. A Grammar of Comanche. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.

Osborn, Henry, and William A. Smalley. 1949. Formulae for Comanche stem and word formation. International Journal of American Linguistics 15:93-99.

Wistrand-Robinson, Lila, and James Armagost. 1990. Comanche Dictionary and Grammar. Summer Institute of Linguistics and The University of Texas at Arlington.

Coos (Hanis):

Frachtenberg, Leo J. 1922. Coos. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Part II, Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40, pp. 297-429. Washington: Government Printing Office.

Expert: Matthew Dryer:


Sapir, J. David. 1965. A Grammar of Diola-Fogny. West African Language Monographs 3. Ibadan: Cambridge University Press in association with The West African Languages Survey and The Institute of African Studies.


Tryon, Darrell T. 1968. Dehu Grammar. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 7. Canberra: The Australian National University.

Moyse-Faurie, Claire. 1983. Le drehu, langue de Lifou (Iles Loyaut). Paris: SELAF.


Boelaars, J. H. M. C. 1950. The Linguistic Position of South-Western New Guinea. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Drabbe, P. 1952. Spraakkunst van het Ekagi. 'S-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.

Steltenpool, J. 1969. Ekagi-Dutch-English-Indonesian Dictionary. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff.

Epena Pedee:

Harms, Philip Lee. 1994. Epena Pedee Syntax. Studies in the Languages of Colombia 4. Summer Institute of Linguistics.


Bulatova, Nadezhda, and Lenore Grenoble. 1998. Evenki. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Konstantinova, O. A. 1968. Evenki. In P. J. Skorik et al, ed., Jazyki Narodov SSSR 5 (Mongol'skie, tunguso-man'chzhurskie i paleoaziaskie jazyki). Leningrad: Nauka.

Nedjalkov, Igor. 1996. Evenki. London: Routledge.

Expert: Igor Nedjalkov (Subj: for Igor)


Warburton, Irene et al. 1968. Ewe Basic Course. Revised Edition. Bloomington: African Studies Program, Indiana University.

Westermann, Diedrich. 1930. A study of the Ewe language. London: Oxford University Press.

Westermann, Diedrich. 1907. Grammatik der Ewe-Sprache. Berlin: D. Reimer.

Fiaga, Kwasi. 1976. Grammaire eve. Lome: Institut national de la recherche scientifique.

Pasch, Helma. 1995. Kurzgrammatik des Ewe. Koln: R. Koppe.


Beaton, A. C. 1968. A Grammar of the Fur Language. Linguistic Monograph Series 1 Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit.

Jakobi, Angelika. 1990. A Fur Grammar: Phonology, Morphophonology, and Morphology. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.

Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. 1966. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London: Oxford University Press.


Burling, Robbins. 1961. A Garo Grammar. Deccan College Monograph Series 25. Poona: Deccan College Postgraduate and Research Institute.


Harrison, Reverend C. 1895. Haida Grammar. In Trans. Royal Soc. of Canada Section II, pp. 123-226. (Reprinted in 1969, Toronto: Canadiana House.)

Levine, Robert. 1977. The Skidegate Dialect of Haida. Unpublished Columbia University dissertation.

Swanton, John R. 1911. Haida. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40, Part 1, pp. 205-282.


Hall, Robert Anderson. 1944. Hungarian Grammar. Language Monographs, No. 21. Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America.

Kenesei, Istvan, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi. 1998. Hungarian. London: Routledge.

Wojatsek, Charles. 1964. Hungarian: textbook and grammar. Boulder, Colorado: Pruett Press.

Expert: Istvan Kenesei:


Van den Berg, Helma. 1995. A Grammar of Hunzib. Lincom Studies in Caucasian Linguistics 1 Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Helma van den Berg:


Carrell, Patricia L. 1970. A Transformational Grammar of Igbo. Cambridge: University Press.

Emenanjo, E. Nolue. 1978. Elements of Modern Igbo Grammar. Ibadan: Oxford University Press.

Green, M. M., and G. E. Igwe. 1963. A Descriptive Grammar of Igbo. London: Oxford University Press.

Ward, Ida Caroline. 1936. An introduction to the Ibo language. Cambridge, U. K.: W. Heffer and Sons.


Frank, Paul. 1990. Ika Syntax. Studies in the Language of Colombia 1. Summer Institute of Linguistics and University of Texas at Arlington.


Nichols, J. 1994. Ingush. In Rieks Smeets, ed., The Indigenous Languages of the Caucasus, Vol. 4, pp. 79-145. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books.

Johanna Nichols' web site on Ingush at

Expert: Johanna Nichols


Mous,Maarten. 1993. A Grammar of Iraqw. (Kuschitische Sprachstudien 9) Hamburg: Buske.

Nordbustad, Froydis. 1988. Iraqw Grammar: An Analytical Study of the Iraqw Language. Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. 1966. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Whitely, W. H. 1958. A Short Description of Item Categories in Iraqw. Kampola: East African Institute of Social Research.

Expert: Maarten Mous:


Bammesberger, Alfred. 1982. A Handbook of Irish. Heidelberg: Carl Winter Universitatsverlag.

Dillon, Myles, and Donncha o Croinin. 1961. Irish. Teach Yourself Books. London: English Universities Press.

Doyle, Aidian. 1998. Irish. Munich: Lincom Europa.

O Siadhail, Micheal. 1989. Modern Irish : grammatical structure and dialectal variation. Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press.

Stenson, Nancy. 1981. Studies in Irish Syntax. Tubingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.


Cyffer, Norbert. 1998. A Sketch of Kanuri. Koln: Koppe.

Hutchison, John P. 1976. Aspects of Kanuri Syntax. Indiana University Ph. D. Dissertation. Ann Arbor: University Microfilms.

Hutchison, John P. 1981. The Kanuri Language: A Reference Grammar. Madison: African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin.

Lukas, Johannes. 1937. A Study of the Kanuri Language: Grammar and Vocabulary. London: The Oxford University Press.


Oates, W., and L. Oates. 1968. Kapau Pedagogical Grammar. Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 10 Canberra: The Australian National University.


Clairis, Christos. 1985. El Qawasqar: Linguistica Fueguina, Teoria y Descripcion. (Estudios filologicos, Anejo 12.) Valdivia, Chile: Faculted de Filosofia y Humanidades, Universidad Austral de Chile.

Kayah Li:

Solnit, David B. 1997. Eastern Kayah Li: Grammar, Texts, Glossary. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Expert: David Solnit:


Ebert, Keren. 1979. Sprache und Tradition der Kera (Tschad), Teil III: Grammatik. Berlin: Verlag von Dietrich Reimer.


Dulzon, A. P. 1968. Ketskij jazyk. Tomsk, U.S.S.R.: Tomsk University.

Vajda, Edward J. 1998. Ket. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Vall, Margarita N. 1990. Ocherk fonologii i grammatiki ketskogo iazyka. Moscow: Nauka.

Werner, Heinrich. 1997. Die ketische Sprache. Tunguso Sibirica Bd. 3. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Werner, Heinrich. 1995. Zur Typologie der Jenissej-Sprachen. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

Edward Vajda:


Nagaraja, K. S. 1985. Khasi: A Descriptive Analysis. Pune: Deccan College Post-Graduate & Research Institute.

Rabel, Lili. 1961. Khasi, a Language of Assam. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.

Expert: Gracious (Grace) Temsen (


Premsrirat, Suwilai. 1987. A Khmu Grammar. In Papers in South-East Asian Linguistics No. 10, Pacific Linguistics, Series A, No. 75. Canberra: Australian National University.

Smalley, William A. 1961. Outline of Khmu Structure. New Haven, Conn.: American Oriental Society.

Expert: Jan-Olof Svantesson:


Senft, Gunter. 1986. Kilivila, The Language of the Trobriand Islanders. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Expert: Gunter Senft:


Cowell, Reid. 1951. The Structure of Gilbertese. Bern, Gilbert Islands: Rongorongo Press.

Groves, Terab'ata R., Gordon W. Groves, and Roderick Jacobs. 1985. Kiribatese: An Outline Description. Pacific Linguistics, Series D, No. 64.


Davies, John. 1981. Kobon. Lingua Descriptive Studies 3. Amsterdam: North-Holland.

Expert: John Davies:


Bentley, W. Holman. 1887. Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language. London: Baptist Missionary Society. Reprinted 1967 by Gregg Press.

Bentley, W. Holman. 1895. Appendix to the Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language. London: Baptist Missionary Society. Reprinted 1967 by Gregg Press.

Lumwamu, François. 1973. Essai de Morphosyntaxe Systematique des Parlers Kongo. Paris: Editions Klincksieck.


Rennison, John R. 1997. Koromfe. London: Routledge.

Expert: John Rennison:


Bender, M.L. 1983. Editorial Comments in Footnotes to E. D. Thompson, Kunama: Phonology and Noun Phrase. In M.L. Bender, ed., Nilo-Saharan Language Studies Monograph No. 13. East Lansing: Committee on Northeast African Studies, African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Bender, Lionel M. 1996. Kunama. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Bohm, Gerhard. 1984. Grammatik der Kunama-Sprache. Beitrage zur Afrikanistik 22 Vienna: Institut fur Afrikanistik und Agyptologie der Universitat Wien.

Thompson, E. D. 1983. Kunama: phonology and noun phrase. In M. L. Bender, ed., Nilo-Saharan Language Studies, pp. 280-322. East Lansing: African Studies Center, Michigan State University.

Thompson, E. David. 1989. Kunama Verb Phrase. In M. Lionel Bender, ed., Topics in Nilo-Saharan Linguistics, , pp. 305-346. Hamburg: Helmut Buske Verlag.

Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. 1966. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London: Oxford University Press.


Koshal, Sanyukta. 1979. Ladacki Grammar. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.


Murkelinskij, G. B. 1967. Laksii Jazyk. In E. A. Bokarev et al, ed., Jazyki Narodov SSSR 4 (Iberijskukavkazskie jazyki). Moscow: Nauka.

Zhirkov, L. I. 1955. Lakskii Jazyk. Moscow: Izdelstvo Akademii Nauk SSSR.

Expert: Konstantin Kazenin


Bielenstein, A. 1863. Lettische Grammatik. Mitau: Fr. Lucas' Buchhandlung.

Lazdina, Tereza Budina. 1966. Teach Yourself Latvian. London: The English Universities Press.

Fennell, Trevor G., and Henry Gelsen. 1980. A Grammar of Modern Latvian (Volumes 1 to 3). The Hague: Mouton.

Nau, Nicole. 1998. Latvian. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Aleksandra Steinbergs


Mainwaring, Colonel G. B. 1876. A Grammar of the Rong (Lepcha) Language. Calcutta: Baptist Mission Press.


Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. 1966. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Lukas, J. 1933. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Sprachen von Wadai (Mararet, Maba). Journal de la Societe des Africanistes (CK name) 3:25-55.

Trenga, G. 1947. Le Bura-Mabang du Ouadai. Paris: Institut d'Ethnologie, Universite de Paris.


Bauer, Winifred. 1993. Maori. London: Routledge.

Harlow, Ray. 1996. Maori. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Expert: Margaret Mutu:


Tryon, D. T. 1970b. An Introduction to Maranungku. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 15 Canberra: The Australian National University.


Boelaars, J. H. M. C. 1950. The Linguistic Position of South-Western New Guinea. Leiden: E. J. Brill.

Drabbe, Peter. 1955. Spraakkunst van het Marind, zuidkust Nederlands Nieuw-Guinea. Wien-M:odling: Wien-M:odling. (Reprinted 1966 by Johnson Reprint Corp., New York.).

Geurtjens, Hendrik. 1926. Spraakleer der Marindineesche Taal. The Hague: M. Nijhoff.

Miwok (Southern Sierra):

Broadbent, Sylvia M. 1964. The Southern Sierra Miwok Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Hoffmann, Johann. 1903. Mundari Grammar. Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Press.

Nottrott, A. 1882. Grammatik der Kolh-Sprache. Gutersloh: von C. Bertelsmann.

Osada, Toshiki. 1992. A Reference Grammar of Mundari. Tokyo: Tokyo University of Foreign Studies.

Sinha, N. K. 1974. Mundari Grammar. Central Institute of Indian Languages, Grammar Series 2. Mansagangotri, Mysore: Centeral Institute of Indian Langauges.


Lyth, R. E. 1971. A Murle Grammar. Linguistic Monograph Papers No. 7. Khartoum: Sudan Research Unit, Faculty of Arts, University of Khartoum.

Tucker, A. N., and M. A. Bryan. 1966. Linguistic Analysis: The Non-Bantu Languages of North-Eastern Africa. London: Oxford University Press.

Nahuatl (Tetelcingo):

Tuggy, David H. 1977. Tetelcingo Nahuatl. In Ronald W. Langacker, ed., Modern Aztec Grammatical Sketches, Studies in Uto-Aztecan Grammar 2. Arlington: Summer Institute of Linguistics.


Faltz, Leonard. 1998. The Navajo Verb: A Grammar for Students and Scholars. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.

Landar, Herbert Jay. 1963. Navaho Syntax. Language 39, Supplement, Language Dissertation No. 57. Baltimore: Waverly Press.

Reichard, Gladys A. 1951. Navaho Grammar. American Ethnological Society, J. J. Augustin.

Sapir, Edward, and Harry Hoijer. 1967. The Phonology and Morphology of the Navajo Language. University of California Publications in Linguistics 50. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Young, Robert W., and William Morgan. 1980. The Navajo Language: A Grammar and Colloquial Dictionary. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.


Huttar, George L. and Mary Huttar. 1994. Ndyuka. London: Routledge.

Expert: George Huttar & Mary Huttar:


Castren, Matthias A. 1854/1966. Grammatik der samojedischen Sprachen. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Collinder, Bjorn. 1957. Survey of the Uralic languages. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wiksell.

Collinder, Bjorn. 1960. Comparative grammar of the Uralic languages. Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell.

Hajdu, Peter. 1968. The Samoyed peoples and languages. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Tereshchenko, N. M. 1956. Materialy i issledovanija po jazyku nencev. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Akademii nauk SSSR.

Tereshchenkoo, N. M. 1966. Nenets. In V. I. Lytkin et al, ed., ,Jazyki Narodov SSSR, Volume 3 (Finno-Ugorskie Jazyki i Samodijskie Jazyki). Moscow: Nauka.

web sites at,

Nez Perce:

Aoki, Haruo. 1970. Nez Perce grammar. Berkeley: University of California Press.

[Rude, Noel. 1985. Studies in Nez Perce Grammar and Discourse. University of Oregon dissertation.]

Expert: Noel Rude:


Kutsch Lojenga, Constance. 1994. Ngiti: A Central-Sudanic Language of Zaire. Cologne: Rudiger Koppe Verlag.


Gruzdeva, Ekaterina. 1998. Nivkh. Munich: Lincom Europa.

Panfilov, V. Z. 1962. Grammatika Nivxskogo Jazyka. Moscow: Akedemiia Nauk SSSR.

Expert: Martin Haspelmath (& E. Gruzdeva):


Taylor, C. 1985. Nkore-Kiga. London: Croom Helm.

Nubian (Dongolese):

Armbruster, Charles Herbert. 1960. Dongolese Nubian: A Grammar. Cambridge: The University Press.


Heath, Jeffrey. 1984. Functional Grammar of Nunggubuyu. Atlantic Highlands N. J.: Humanities Press (and Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies).

Expert: Jeff Heath


Crowley, Terry. 1982. The Paamese Language of Vanuatu. Pacific linguistics. Series B, No. 87 Canberra: Department of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University.

Expert: Terry Crowley:


Leavitt, Robert M. 1996. Passamaquoddy-Maliseet. Munich: Lincom Europa.


Chapman, Shirley, and Desmond C. Derbyshire. 1990. Paumari. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, eds., Handbook of Amazonian Languages, Vol. 3, pp. 161-352. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Bowe, Heather. 1990. Categories, Constituents, and Constituent Order in Pitjantjatjara. London: Routledge.

Eckert, Paul, and Joyce Hudson. 1988. Wangka Wiru: A Handbook for the Pitjantjajara Language Learner. Underdale, Australia: Aboriginal Studies and Teacher Education Centre.

Expert: Heather Bowe

Pomo (Southeastern):

Moshinsky, Julius. 1974. A Grammar of Southeastern Pomo. Berkeley: University of California Press.


Najlis, E. 1973. Lengua Selknam. Filologia y Linguistica 3 Buenos Aires: Universidad del Salvador.

Tonelli, D. A. 1926. Grammatica e glossario della lingua degli Ona-Selknam della Terra del Fuoco. Turin: Societa Editrice Internazionale.


Kruspe, Nicole. In preparation. A Grammar of Semelai. To be made available some time in 2000.

Expert: Nicole Kruspe:


Cowan, H. K. J. 1965. Grammar of the Sentani Language. 's-Gravenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.


Faust, Norma. 1973. Lecciones para el aprendizaje del idioma Shipibo-Conibo. Instituto Linguistico de Verano.

Loriot, James, Erwin Lauriault, and Dwight Day. 1993. Diccionario Shipibo-Castellano. Yarinacocha, Peru: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Expert: Pilar Valenzuela


Kuipers, Aert H. 1967. The Squamish Language. The Hague: Mouton.


Wilson, Darryl. 1974. Suena Grammar. Workpapers in Papua New Guinea Languages 8. Ukarumpa, Papua New Guinea: Summer Institute of Linguistics.


Bowden, John. 1997. Taba (Makian Dalam): Description of an Austronesian Language of Eastern Indonesia. University of Melbourne Ph.D. Thesis.

Expert: John Bowden:


Boas, Franz. 1917. Grammatical Notes on the Language of the Tlingit Indians. University of Pennsylvania University Museum Anthropological Publications 8, No. 1.

Naish, Constance. 1979. A Syntactic Study of Tlingit. Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Story, Gillian. 1979. A Morphological Study of Tlingit. Summer Institute of Linguistics.

Swanton, John R. 1911a. Tlingit. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40, Part 1, pp. 159-204.


Monod-Becquelin, Aurore. 1975. La Pratique Linguistique des Indiens Trumai. Tome 1. Paris: Centre National de la Researche Scientifique.

Guirardello, Raquel. 1999. A Grammar of Trumai. Unpublished Rice University Ph.D. Dissertation.

Guirardello, Raquel. 1999. Trumai. In Robert M. W. Dixon and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, eds. 1999, Amazonian Languages. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 351-353.

Expert: Raquel Guirardello:

Tshimshian (Coast):

Boas, Franz. 1911. Tsimshian. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Part 1, Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 40, pp. 283-422. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

Dunn, John Asher. 1979. A Reference Grammar for the Coast Tsimshian Language. Canadian Ethnology Service Paper 55. Ottawa: National Museum of Canada.

Dunn, John Asher. 1995. Sm'algyax : a reference dictionary and grammar for the Coast Tsimshian language. Seattle: University of Washington Press. (Rev. ed. of: A practical dictionary of the Coast Tsimshian language. 1978, and A reference grammar for the Coast Tsimshian language. 1979).


Haas, Mary R. 1940. Tunica. New York: J. J. Augustin.


Louwerse, J. 1988. The Morphosyntax of Una in Relation to Discourse Structure. Pacific Linguistics, Series B, No. 100.


Coate, H. H. J., and Lynette Oates. 1970. A Grammar of Ngarinjin. Australian Aboriginal Studies 25. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies Press.

Rumsey, Alan. 1982. An Intra-Sentence Grammar of Ungarinjin, North-Western Australia. Pacific linguistics. Series B, no. 86. Canberra: Dept. of Linguistics, Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University for the Linguistic Circle of Canberra.


Kakumasu, James. 1986. Urubu-Kaapor. In Desmond C. Derbyshire and Geoffrey K. Pullum, ed., Handbook of Amazonian Languages 1, pp. 326-403. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


Reesink, Ger P. 1987. Structures and their functions in Usan : a Papuan language of Papua New Guinea. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.


Nordlinger, Rachel. 1998. A Grammar of Wambaya, Northern Territory (Australia). Pacific Linguistics, Series C, No. 140.

Expert: Rachel Nordlinger


Merlan, Francesca. 1994. Wardaman. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


No Author. 1982. Grammatica Pedagogica Huitoto. Bogota: Summer Institute of Linguistics.

!Xu (Ju/'hoan):

Snyman, J. W. 1970. An Introduction to the !Xu (!Kung) Language. Capetown: A. A. Balkema.


Dixon, Robert M. W. 1977. A Grammar of Yidin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Expert: R.M.W. Dixon: fax +61-3-94673053


Foley, William A. 1991. The Yimas Language of New Guinea. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Expert: William Foley:


Wagner, Gunter. 1933-1938. Yuchi. In Franz Boas, ed., Handbook of American Indian Languages, Part 3, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 40, Part 3. New York: Columbia University Press. Also published 1934 as separate monograph.

Yukaghir (Kolyma):

Krejnovich, E. A. 1958. Jukagirskij Jazyk. Moscow-Leningrad.

Maslova, Elena. 1999. A Grammar of Kolyma Yukaghir. Habilitation thesis, University of Bielefeld. To appear in the Mouton Grammar Library.

Expert: Elena Maslova


Reed, Irene, Osahito Miyaoka, Steven Jacobson, Paschal Afcan, and Michael Krauss. 1977. Yup'ik Eskimo Grammar. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska.

Jacobson, S. A. 1984. Yup'ik Eskimo Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska.

Jacobson, S. A. 1995. A Practical Grammar of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimo Language. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska.

Miyaoka, Osahito. 1996. Sketch of Central Alaskan Yupik, an Eskimoan Language. In Ives Goddard, ed., Handbook of American Indians, Vol. 17: Languages, pp. 325 - 363. Washington: Smithsonian Institute.

Expert: Anthony Woodbury:


Robins, R. H. 1958. The Yurok Language. Berkeley: University of California Press.

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