Molecular Physiology, Endocrinology and Pharmacology

Professor Biological Sciences
Adjunct Professor Pharmaceutics

B.S 1968 MS 1970 Ph.D 1971, University of Illinois
Postdoctoral work 1971 Duke University
Research Assistant Professor 1975 University of California/San Diego
Professor Biological Sciences
Adjunct Professor Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy

Address Information

Richard R. Almon
Department of Biological Sciences
107 Hochstetter Hall
State University of New York at Buffalo
Buffalo, NY 14260

(716) 645-4909

To send e-mail:

Course Information

Go to Dr. Almon's BIO 101 (Licit & Illicit Drugs) Course Home Page
Go to Dr. Almon's BIO 440/540 (Experimental Endocrinology) Course Home Page


Close to one half of all protein in the body is contained in the musculature. This protein mass serves two quite different purposes. The first and most obvious function is mechanics (movement and posture). The second, perhaps less obvious function, is to support general body energy metabolism. When necessary, amino acid carbon is removed from the muscle and used for gluconeogenesis by the liver. A structurally related group of steroid hormones, glucocorticoids, express the systemic demand for amino acid carbon from the musculature. The central focus of the work in this laboratory is in understanding the mechanism by which the systemic demand for amino acid carbon is discriminately distributed amongst the various muscles of the body. In general, the quality and quantity of mechanical activity regulates protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. The character of mechanical activity also regulates many aspects of the expressed characteristics of a muscle. By manipulating the character of muscle mechanical activity, it is possible to change several expressed characteristics of a muscle. These expressed characteristics include hormonal sensitivities, isozymes of the contractile apparatus, and enzymes involved in energy metabolism. By manipulating the character of mechanical activity, it is also possible to cause a muscle to atrophy or hypertrophy. The goal of this work is to develop quantitative models that describe the integrative regulation of muscle protein mass and gene expression by mechanical activity and hormones. The general approach is to use animal manipulations to induce atrophy or hypertrophy in selected muscles within the context of controlled changes in the systemic hormonal milieu. We then analyze at the structural , cellular, and molecular levels the characteristics of the manipulated muscles. At the present time, our particular interest is in changes in the expression of protein and message for several receptors, myosin isozymes, and enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Methodologies used in the laboratory include animal surgery, cell fractionation, equilibrium binding assays, enzyme kinetics, RIAs, HPLC, light and fluorescent spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and Northern Western hybridizations, ELISA, and quantitative rtPCR.


  • Mechanical regulation of the sensitivity of muscles to glucocorticoids, insulin and recombinant growth hormone.
  • Aging skeletal muscle: disuse and recovery.
  • Growing muscle: disuse and recovery

    Collaborative projects with:

    William Jusko, Pharmaceutics;
    Marilyn Morris, Pharmaceutics;
    Cathleen Boji, Pharmaceutics;
    Luc Gosslin, Physical Therapy and Exercise Science.


  • Jin Y Jin, Richard R. Almon, Debra C. DuBois, William J Jusko
    Modeling of Corticosteroid Pharmacogenomics in Rat Liver Using Gene Microarrays
    Journal Of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    306: 93-109, 2003
  • Richard R. Almon, Debra C. DuBois, Keri E. Pearson, Dietrich A Stephan, and William J. Jusko
    Gene Arrays and Temporal Patterns of Drug Response: Corticosteroid Effects on Liver

    Functional and Integrative Genomics
    3: 171-179, 2003
  •  Richard R. Almon, Josephine Chen, Grayson Snyder, Debra C. DuBois, William J. Jusko, and Eric P. Hoffman
    In vivo Multi-Tissue Corticosteroid Microarray Time Series Available Online at Public Expression Profile Resource (PEPR).

    Pharmacogenomics, 4: 791-799, 2003
  • Josephine Chen, Po Zhao, Donald Massaro, Linda B. Clerch, Richard R. Almon, Debra C. DuBois, William J. Jusko, Eric P Hoffman
    The PERP GeneChip data wharehouse, and implementation of a dynamic time series query tool (SGQT) with graphical interface.

    Nucleic Acid Research
    32: 1-4, 2004
  • Jin Y. Jin, Debra C. DuBois, Richard R. Almon, and William J. Jusko
    Receptor/Gene-Mediated Pharmacodynamic Effects of Methylprednisolone on Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Regulation in Rat Liver
    Journal Of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
    307: 93-109 2003
  • Hoffman, E.P, DuBois, D.C, Hoffman,R.I., Almon, R.R.
    Expression profiling and pharmacgenomics of muscle and muscle disease
    Current Opinions in Pharmacology. 3: 309-316 2003
  • Ramakrishnan, R., DuBois, D., Almon, R., Pyszczynski, N., and Jusko, W.,
    Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacogenomics of Methylprednisolone During Seven-day Infusion in Rats.
    J. Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 300: 245-256, 2002
  • Almon, R.R. and DuBois, D.C.
    Tyrosine Aminotransferase
    Wiley Encyclopedia of Molecular Medicine, Vol. 5. 3297-3300. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2002.
  • Almon, R.R. and DuBois, D.C.
    Quantitation of Expressed Message for Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase.

    Methods in Enzymology
    : 359: 445-452, 2003.
  • Almon, R.R.
    Immunosuppressive/Anti-inflammatory Drugs
    PharmaTech 2002: 194-196, 2002.
  • Han, Bing, Shi, Wei, Sagawa, Kazuko, DuBois, Debra, C., and Almon Richard, R (1998)
    Can the Pharmacological Use of Growth Hormone Facilitate Recovery of Muscle From Disuse in"Adult" and "Old" animals
    1998 Gerontology Society of America, winner of the George Sacher Prize
  • Sun, Y-N, McKAY, L.I., DuBois, D. C., Jusko, W.J., and Almon, R. R. (1999)
    Glucocorticoid Dynamics: A Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) Model for Glucocorticoid Receptor Down Regulation and Glutamine Synthetase Induction in Rat Skeletal Muscle by a Receptor Gene Mediated Mechanism.
    J. Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 288:720-728
  • Sagawa, K. DuBois, D. C., Almon, R. R., Murer, H., and Morris (1998)
    Cellular mechanisms of Renal Adaptation of Sodium Dependent Sulfate Cotransport to Altered Dietary Sulfate in Rats
    J. Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 287:1056-1062
  • Sun, Y-N, DuBois, D. C., Almon, R. R., and Jusko, W.J (1998)
    Fourth-Generation Model for Corticosteroid Pharmacodynamics: A Model for Methylprednisolone Effects on Receptor Gene-Mediated Glucocorticoid Receptor Down-Regulation and Tyrosine Aminotransferase Induction in Rat Liver. J. Pharmacokinetics and Biopharmaceutics 26:289-317
  • McKay, L.I., DuBois, D. C., Sun, Y-N., Jusko, W.J., and Almon, R. R (1997)
    Corticosteroid effects in skeletal muscle: coupled dynamic response of glutamine synthetase induction and glucocorticoid receptor autoregulation Muscle and Nerve 20: 1318-1320
  • Almon, R. R., DuBois, D. C (1996)
    Drugs in Human Biology
    McGraw-Hill, New York ISBN 0-07-001399-3.
  • Lapier, T.K., Cerny, F.S., Almon, R.R., and Burton, H.B. (1995)
    Limb immobilization affects susceptibility to contractionduced muscle injury.
    Journal of Applied Physiology 78:1065-1069
  • DuBois, D.C., Xu, Z.-X., McKay, L., Almon, R.R., Pyszcznski, N., and Jusko, W.J. (1995)
    Differential dynamics of receptor downegulation and tyrosine aminotransferase induction following glucocorticoid treatment
    Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 54:237-243
  • DuBois, D. C., Almon, R. R. and, Jusko, W (1993)
    Molar quantification of specific messenger ribonucleic acid expression in Northern hybridization using cRNA standards
    Analytical Biochemistry 210: 140-144
  • Zemkova, H., Teisinger, J., Almon, R. R., Vejsada, R., Hnik, P. and Vyskocil, F (1990)
    Immobilization atrophy and membrane properties in rat skeletal muscle fibers
    Eur. J of Physiology. Pfugers Arch 416: 126-129
  • Almon, R. R. and DuBois, D. C (1990)
    Fiber-type discrimination in disuse and glucocorticoid induced atrophy
    Med. Sci. Sports Exerc 22: 304-311
  • Almon, R. R. and DuBois, D. C (1988)
    Adrenalectomy eliminates both fiber-type differences and starvation effects on denervated muscle
    Am. J. Physiology 255: E850-856
  • DuBois, D. C. and Almon, R. R (1984)
    Glucocorticoid sites in skeletal muscle: adrenalectomy, maturation, fiber type and sex.
    Am. J. Physiology 247: E118-E125
  • DuBois, D. C. and Almon, R. R (1980)
    Disuse atrophy of skeletal muscle is associated with an increase in number of glucocorticoid receptors
    Endocrinology 107: 1649-1651
  • Almon, R. R. and Appel, S.H (1976)
    Cholinergic sites in skeletal muscle, II. Interaction of each site with agonists and antagonists
    Biochemistry 15: 3667-3671
  • Almon, R. R. and Appel, S.H (1976)
    Cholinergic sites in skeletal muscle, I. Denervation effects
    Biochemistry 15: 3662-3667
  • Almon, R.R. and Appel, S.H (1975)
    Interaction of Myasthenic serum globulin with the acetylcholine receptor
    Biochem. Biophys. Acta 393: 66-77
  • Almon, R. R., Andrew, C. G. and Appel, S.H (1974)
    Acetylcholine receptor in normal and denervated slow and fast muscle
    Biochemistry13: 5522-5528
  • Andrew, C.G., Almon, R.R. and Appel, S.H (1975)
    Macromolecular characterization of muscle membranes: Endogenous membrane kinase and phosphorylated protein substrate from normal and denervated muscle
    J. Biological. Chemistry 250: 3972-3980
  • Almon, R.R., Andrew, C.G., and Appel, S.H. (1974)
    Serum globulin In Myasthenia Gravis: Inhibition of alpha bungarotoxin binding to acetylcholine receptors
    Science 186: 55-57