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User Guide: Electronic Citation Guide
(or "how to cite electronic anthropological media")

(last revised August 15, 1997)

The following is loosely based on Xia Li and Nancy B. Crane's 1993 book, Electronic Style: A Guide to Citing Electronic Information (Meckler, Westport) ISBN:0-88736-909-X.

An excellent guide now exists published in print and online by Nedford / St. Martin's: Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources.

Comments in {squiggly brackets} are for guidance and not to be included, but (parentheses) and CAPITALISED text are to be included verbatim. [Square brackets] and the information they request are to be included whenever possible or applicable. Email addresses should be given in the <angle brackets> as shown. URL's can be split immediately after a directory slash ("/") if they are too long for one line. [HTML Title] refers to the title which is coded to appear at the top of your browser window.

All Web resources are notoriously fickle. They frequently shift location and are typically undergoing constant modifications. The key is to reference them as robustly as possible. Be general but also give as much locational information as possible so that people following up on your reference can still locate the item even after it has moved or evolved into a quite different entity.

A: Citing a Web site or resource:

General Form:
page owner or maintainer
date {this is the date of your visit}. title [HTML Title] {or [Title] from the document's main heading}: subtitle {if given}. Available: url Email: name of owner <email address> [Owner] {or use the Webmaster's name and email as a second best alternative and then use [Webmaster]}

Jarvis, Hugh W.
1997, August 9. The Anthropology Review Database (ARD). [HTML Title]. Available: Email: <> [Owner]

B) Citing a document from a Web site or resource (e.g. ARD or an electronic journal):

The URL will provide the needed information about the transfer medium, such as http, ftp, gopher, telnet, news, etc. While there may be a volume or issue number, there typically will not be any page numbers since the document author(s) have no control over the nature of the final layout on a given system and thus seldom use them.

General Form:
date {either publication date or date of last modification as given} title of item [HTML Title] {or [Title]}: subtitle {if given}. title of source [type of medium], volume (issue) {if given}, pagination {if given}. Available: url Email: principal author <email address> [Author].

Julig, Patrick
1995, April 20. The sourcing of chert artifacts by INAA: some examples from the Great Lakes region [Title]. Journal of World Anthropology [Online Journal], 1(2). Available: Email: Patrick Julig <> [Author]

Bucko, Raymond A
1997, August 20. Review of Northern Haida Songs [HTML Title]. Anthropology Review Database [Online Database]. Available: anthropology/ARD/reviews/bucko082097.html Email: Raymond A Bucko <> [Author]

B) Citing an electronic mail message:

These items equate to the more traditional forms of personal communication. Also note that the "date" may wind up being quite precise and necessarily so. Make sure to give the complete time if available.

General Form:
year, date, time {as given}. Subject: {subject line of the message}. [Sent To: recipient's name <email address>]. Available: name <email address>

Jones, Bob
1995, April 17, 21:04:32 EST. Subject: When is the next issue coming out...? [Sent To: Hugh Jarvis <>] Available: Hugh Jarvis <>

C) Citing a message from an electronic bulletin board, BBS, or UseNet Group:

Again, these are personal communication, unless they have been archived in some fashion on a Web site. Don't just give list address as that will lead to undesirable mail on the list. Give the listowner's address if necessary, but better yet, get a copy of the message and hold on to it.

General Form:
year, date, time {as given}. Subject: subject. electronic forum [type of forum]. Available: {list/archive location e.g. url} Email: name <listowner's email address> [Listowner] {or [List Manager]} or {author's name <author's email address> [Author]} {order doesn't really matter}

Jarvis, Hugh
1991, February 12, 13:22:01 DST. How do you define territoriality? Anthro-l [Listserv Bulletin Board]. Available: Email: Hugh Jarvis <> [Author] or Patrick Miller <> [List Manager]

Composed by Hugh Jarvis <>

Page last modified:: Thursday, 18-May-2006 11:45:15 EDT

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